11 Panel – Expanded Opiates
- Phencyclidine (PCP).
- Amphetamines (methamphetamine, MDMA, MDA, MDEA).
- Opiates (codeine, morphine, heroin).
- Expanded opiates (hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone).
What is an Expanded Opiates Panel?
This standard opiates panel includes codeine, morphine, and heroin. When adding expanded opiates, we are adding the pain reliever-type drugs: hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone.
Hydrocodone is an opioid pain medication and a Schedule II drug, which means it has a high potential for abuse and may lead to severe or physical dependence. This drug works in the brain to change how your body feels and responds to pain. Subsequent heroin use is a concern.
Hydrocodone is derived from the poppy, but this drug is considered semi-synthetic because it does not occur naturally. It's manufactured by chemically modifying the codeine molecule.
Over 90% of all hydrocodone abuse in the world occurs in the United States.
Hydromorphone is a Schedule II narcotic and is used for the relief of moderate to severe chronic pain due to surgery, cancer, trauma/injury, and burns. It's approximately eight times more potent on a per milligram basis than morphine. Side effects include nausea, vomiting, headache, dry mouth, loss of appetite, and dizziness.
Oxycodone is an opioid pain medication. It's used to treat moderate to severe pain. Oxycodone may be habit-forming and is very addictive. Users will crush the tablets and short, chew, or mix them with water before injecting them — allowing for a quick and intense rush to the brain. Users will often transition to heroin.
Oxymorphone is a narcotic used for the relief of moderate to severe pain and is prescribed in immediate and extended release formulations. Side effects include nausea, constipation, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Oxymorphone can have a high risk for abuse and severe, possibly fatal, breathing problems.
Today, when it comes to prescription drugs, the biggest concern from employers is pain relief medications.
Trade Names for the Expanded Opiates
- Hydrocodone: Vicodin®, Lorcet®, Lortab®, Hycodan®
- Hydromorphone: Dilaudid
- Oxycodone: Endocet, Endodan, Percocet, Percodan, OxyContin, OxyFast, OxyIR, Roxicet, Tylox®
- Oxymorphone: Numorphan
Since about 2005, there have been significant and alarming increases in the incidence of oxycodone and hydrocodone use as measured by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH); the Monitoring the Future surveys of high school and college-aged youth; Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) emergency department mentions; and positivity rates reported by major laboratories.
Several factors are likely to have contributed to the severity of the current prescription drug abuse problem, which
Employers use expanded opiate testing because of the widespread abuse of opiates. Regardless of the
A drug test positive for any expanded opiates will be verified to rule out any legitimate prescription drug use.
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